Probable Side Effects: :Stevens johnson syndrome, hypertension, nervousness, sleep disturbance, skin eruptions, edema, euphoria, agitation, morning diarrhea.
Drug Interaction: Ginseng extract is known to interact with other drugs like pioglitazone. These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Mechanism of Action: Most pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides of ginseng. Ginsenosides have anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory effects. Several individual ginsenosides suppressed tumor cell growth, induced cell differentiation, regulated programmed cell death, and inhibited metastasis. Ginsenosides appear to modulate neurotransmission through -aminobutyric acid (GABA), and by inhibiting neurotransmitter reuptake.
Drug Interaction: Vitamin A is known to interact with other drugs like acitretin, alcohol, bleomycin, etretinate, isotretinoin, metacycline (HCl), minocycline (HCl), neomycin, paraffin, tocopherol (Vitamin E), tretinoin, warfarin (Na). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Mechanism of Action: 1. Vision: Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-cis-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. 2. Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.
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